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Monday, March 31, 2014

Check out unpublished research on IMPACT/Model Mugging, 1993-2011

IMPACT Chicago Instructor Martha Thompson summarizes unpublished research on IMPACT and Model Mugging, 1993-2011. 

IMPACT participants
·         Most have never taken self-defense or martial arts (Cox 1993; Holzman 2011).
·         More than half have experienced some form of verbal, physical, or sexual abuse (Cox 1993; Holzman 2011).

Survivors
·         Self-defense training provides survivors with an opportunity to reconnect with their bodies and increases healing, confidence, self-esteem, and self- care (Anderson 1999).
·         Survivors, in contrast to those who have not experienced abuse, find the simulated scenarios in IMPACT as more realistic (Cox et al 1994; Holzman 2011).
      A safe and respectful classroom space  creates a positive experience for survivors (Rosenblum and Taska 2008).

Self-assessments
·         Participants’ confidence increases after taking IMPACT (Cox 1993; Cox et al 1994; Holzman 2011).
·         Participants’ confidence, self-efficacy, and self-esteem last for a considerable period of time (Chipping 2002; Cox et al 1994).
·         Though no difference in skill level, recent graduates have a higher level of confidence than those who have not participated in a course for a while (Cox et al 1994).
·         Participants report improved assertiveness, personal safety and self-perceptions (IMPACT Safety 2004).
·         Participants report increased physical safety and a reduction in fear-motivated avoidance behavior and these assessments remain after the course (Shim 1998).
·         Women learned to use the strengths they already had (Holzman 2011).

Self-defense skills
·         Women who practice with a padded mock assailant develop stronger self-defense skills than those who practice only against inanimate targets (Cox 1997).
·         Women’s ratings of self-confidence in their skills are supported by independent observers’ assessment of their skill level (Cox et al 1994).
·         Participants’ skills last for a long period of time (Cox et al 1994).

Beyond Self-Defense
·         Most participants report positive effects on other areas of their lives (Cox 1993).
·         Participants develop more positive body images (Shim 1998).
·         Participation increases healing for those who have experienced sexual assault (Anderson 1999).
·         IMPACT youth violence prevention programs give youth alternatives for making safe choices and living with greater confidence in the world (IMPACT Safety 2004).
 Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly reduced after participation in self-defense training and these observed changes are maintained (Shim 1998).

Marketing
·         Photos of physical technique stimulate the most interest but also the most anxiety (Amoroso and Thompson 2006).
·         Photos should tell a story from the defender’s point-of-view and accompanying text should say how the course will help address real-life problems (Amoroso and Thompson 2006).

References
Anderson, K. M. (1999). Healing the fighting spirit: Combining self-defense training and group therapy for women who have experienced incest. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (University of Minnesota)
Conlon, Lynne. 1993. Aggression in women victimized during childhood: The effects of self-defense training. Unpublished dissertation. San Francisco CA:The Professional School of Psychology.
Cox, D. S. An analysis of two forms of self-defense training and their Impact on women’s sense of personal safety self-efficacy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Old Dominion University)
Fisher, L. W. (1994). Facing the demon: Women, Model Mugging, and self-esteem. Unpublished master’s thesis. (Smith College School of Social Work)
.Frost, H. L. (1991). “Model Mugging”: A way to reduce women’s victimization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Univ. of Kansas)
Gaddis, J. W. (1990). Women’s empowerment through Model Mugging: Breaking the cycle of social violence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (UC Santa Barbara)
Lidsker, J. (1991). Women and self-defense training: A study of psychological changes experienced by participants in relation to assault history. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Pacific Graduate School of Psychology).
Peretz, M. E. 1991. The effects of psychotherapy and self-defense training on recovery of acquaintance and stranger rape. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (California School of Professional Psychology).
Rowe, N. P. 1993. Self-defense training: An empowerment process for women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (California Institute of Integral Studies)
Schuiteman, J. A. 1990. Self-defense training and its contributions to the healing process for survivors of sexual assault. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Michigan State University).
SShim, D. J. 1998. Self-defense training, physical self-efficacy, body image, and avoidant behavior in women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Boston University)
Vaselakos, W. D. 1999. The effects of women’s self-protection training on the belief of perceived control. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Adler School of Professional Psychology).




[1] This does not include dissertations completed prior to 1997 because they are not available through Dissertation Abstracts online.
[2] Thanks to Richard Chipping, Julie Harmon, Meg Stone, and Erica Neuman who provided references and research on IMPACT/Model Mugging.

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